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  The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

The Yoga Sutras of Patañjali is a collection of Sanskrit sutras (aphorisms) on the theory and practice of yoga – 195 sutras (according to Vyāsa and Krishnamacharya) and 196 sutras (according to others, including BKS Iyengar). The Yoga Sutras was compiled in the early centuries CE, by the sage Patanjali in India who synthesized and organized knowledge about yoga from much older traditions.[1][2][3]

The Yoga Sutras is best known for its reference to ashtanga, eight elements of practice culminating in samadhi. The eight elements are yama (abstinences), niyama (observances), asana (yoga posture), pranayama (breath control), pratyahara (withdrawal of the senses), dharana (concentration of the mind), dhyana (meditation) and samadhi (absorption). The main aim of practice is kaivalya, discernment of purusha, the witness-consciousness, as distinct from prakriti, the cognitive apparatus, and disentanglement of purusha from prakriti's muddled defilements.

YSA 04.22.23 Yog Sutras by Patanjali v4 - v9 studied with Hersh Khetarpal

YSA 04.22.23 Yog Sutras by Patanjali v4 - v9 studied with Hersh Khetarpal

Samadhi Pad v4 - v9 4. वणत्तसारूप्यभ ृ इतयत्र ॥ ४ ् ॥ vrittisaroopyam itaratra At other times (other than that of concentration) the seer is identified with the modifications. For instance, I am in a state of sorrow; someone blames me; this is a modification, Vritti, and I identify myself with it, and the result is misery. 5. वत्तम् ऩञ्चतय्य् णिष्टा अणिष्टा्॥ ृ ५॥ vrittayah pangchatayyah klishta aklishtah There are five classes of modification, painful and not painful. 6. प्रभािणवऩममणवकल्पणनद्रास्म य तम् ॥ ६ ृ ॥ pramannaviparyayavikalpanidrasmritayah (These are) right knowledge, indiscrimination, verbal delusion, sleep, and memory. 7. प्रत्यऺानभानागभा् प्रभािाणन ॥ ७ ु ॥ pratyakshanumanagamah pramanani Direct perception, inference, and competent evidence, are proofs. 8. णवऩममो णभथ्याऻानभ य अतद्र ् ू ऩप्रणतष्ठभ ॥ ८ ् ॥ viparyayo mithyajnanam atadroopapratishtham Indiscrimination is false knowledge not established in real nature. The next class of Vrittis that arise is mistaking the one thing for another, as a piece of mother-of-pearl is taken for a piece of silver. 9. शब्दऻानानऩाती वस्त ु शुन्यो णवकल्प् ॥ ९ ू ॥ shabdajnaananupati vastushoonyo vikalpah Verbal delusion follows from words having no (corresponding) reality. There is another class of Vrttis called Vikalpa. A word is uttered, and we do not wait to consider its meaning; we jump to a conclusion immediately. It is the sign of weakness of the Chitta. Now you can understand the theory of restraint. The weaker the man the less he has of restraint. Consider yourselves always in that way. When you are going to be angry or miserable, reason it out, how it is that some news that has come to you is throwing your mind into Vrttis.